1: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;19(3):187-94.

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Evaluation of the inactivation of infectious Herpes simplex virus by host-defense peptides.

Yasin B, Pang M, Turner JS, Cho Y, Dinh NN, Waring AJ, Lehrer RI, Wagar EA.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1731, USA.

A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide microplate assay was adapted to screen for the ability of 20 host-defense peptides to inactivate herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. The procedure required minimal amounts of material, was reproducible, and was confirmed with standard antiviral testing techniques. In screening tests, with the exception of melittin, a highly cytotoxic and hemolytic peptide found in bee venom, the alpha-helical peptides in our test panel (magainins, cecropins, clavanins, and LL-37) caused little viral inactivation. Several beta-sheet peptides (defensins, tachyplesin, and protegrins) inactivated one or both viruses, sometimes with remarkable selectivity. Two peptides were identified as having antiviral activity against both viruses, indolicidin (a tryptophan-rich peptide from bovine neutrophils) and brevinin-1 (a peptide found in frog skin). The antiviral activity of these two peptides was confirmed with standard antiviral assays. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of brevinin-1 was maintained after reduction and carboxamidomethylation, procedures that abolished its otherwise prominent hemolytic and cytotoxic effects.

PMID: 10795591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Virology. 1993 Oct;196(2):548-56.

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Role of the Na+,K+ pump in herpes simplex type 1-induced cell fusion: melittin causes specific reversion of syncytial mutants with the syn1 mutation to Syn+ (wild-type) phenotype.

Baghian A, Kousoulas KG.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70803.

To evaluate the importance of the Na+,K+ pump and ionic gradients in virus-induced cell fusion, we investigated the effects of melittin, a 26 amino acid bioactive peptide found in honey bee venom, on cell fusion caused by HSV-1 syncytial mutants. Melittin inhibited fusion of Vero cells caused by HSV-1 mutant viruses mP(MP), KOS (syn20) and KOS (FFV3) containing the syncytial mutation syn1 in glycoprotein K. However, it did not affect cell fusion caused by mutants HFEM(tsB5) or KOS amb1511-7 with mutations in glycoprotein B. Melittin caused specific reversion of syn1 mutant virus plaques to syn+ (wild-type) plaque morphology, and inhibited virus adsorption and penetration. It also inhibited the Na+,K+ pump activity, and the binding of 3H-ouabain to the Na+,K+ pump of infected Vero cells. The Na+,K+ pump activity of infected Vero cells in comparison to mock-infected cells was significantly decreased. Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+,K+ pump, inhibited fusion of Vero cells caused by all syncytial virus strains.

PMID: 8396802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]